IALE Romania members participated at the 9th IALE World Congress, July 5-10, 2015 Portland, Oregon USA.
The IALE Romania members were authors of oral and poster presentations which were held in various symposia, such as: Mountain Land Use Changes and Ecosystem Services; Urban Sprawl: Methods, Drivers, Limits and Implications for Planning; Urban Landscape Ecology: Global Perspectives; Hydrology as well as Land Use and Ecosystem Services.
The contributions of the IALE Romania members were:
Are spatial planning principles and objectives reflected in the evolution of urban landscape patterns? A Romanian - Swiss comparison
Authors: Simona R. Grădinaru*, Cristian I. Iojă, Ileana Pătru-Stupariu, Anna M. Hersperger
Spatial planning principles and objectives have been recognized as important drivers in shaping settlement development. From development oriented to control oriented, they set the framework for implementing measures that aim at assuring a desired spatial pattern. Our study investigates how planning principles and objectives are reflected in actual development patterns of highly dynamic urban areas. Two sites of approximately 40² km were chosen: one in Zurich - Switzerland, and one in Bucharest - Romania, based on the similarity of: land use, functionality of built-up areas, presence of public green areas and water bodies, relief, and built-up dynamics over time. We developed a framework for a systematic comparison of the two planning systems and practices, and performed the assessment based on four strategies of spatial planning: limitation of built-up expansion, conservation of agricultural land, landscape preservation, and social values. Arial images were used to determine changes over two time steps (2005-2013 for Romania and 2003-2012 for Switzerland), and landscape metrics to subsequently quantify them. Then, a spatial multi-criteria analysis was performed, in order to assess how efficiently planning principles and objectives had been implemented in the two countries. The findings bring a better understanding of how planning could improve urban sustainability.
Urban Landscape Ecology: Global Perspectives
Organizer: Chunyang He
Using multi-temporal Landsat imagery for rapid identification of abandoned agricultural land in areas affected by urban sprawl
Authors: Simona R. Gradinaru*, Anna M. Hersperger, Ileana Patru-Stupariu, Felix Kienast, Achilleas Psomas
In former socialist countries, urban sprawl and agricultural land abandonment are significantly affecting provisioning and regulating services. Earlier studies showed that these two processes are highly interlinked and that abandoned land can be used as a significant predictor of urbanization dynamics at the periphery of sprawling cities. However, these studies involved extensive field mapping and orthophotomaps interpretation which can be time consuming and expensive. In this study we evaluated remote sensing as alternative tools for rapid assessment of land cover. We used Landsat 8 data due its high temporal and spatial resolution and its wide and free availability. Due to the rapid land use changes in the last decade, we selected the city of Bucharest and the surrounding agricultural lands as our study area. The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated over the growing season to establish unique temporal NDVI signatures of abandoned lands and areas of other land use types (forest, crops, water, etc ). Then classification models were trained and validated using orthophotomaps and topographic maps. We conclude that the use of Landsat imagery is an efficient method for identifying the spatio-temporal dynamics of abandoned land at short time intervals (1-2 yrs). Due to its predictive ability remote sensing data can be used to identify future hotspots of urbanization. Moreover, abandoned land serves as an important indicator to anticipate and eventually control sprawl pattern in fast growing cities in transition countries.
Urban Sprawl: Methods, Drivers, Limits and Implications for Planning
Organizer: Felix Kienast, Jochen Jaeger
Lifestyle Causes of Suburban Growth and Consequences on Landscape Function
Authors: Andreea Nita*, Athanasios Gavrilidis, Alina Huzui-Stoiculescu, Robert Stoiculescu, Irina Nastase, Simona Gradinaru, Ileana Patru-Stupariu.
Starting with insights on general features of suburban growth, this paper considers the fact that sprawl is a serious challenge that planners are facing worldwide. The sprawling nature of Romanian cities is particularly significant in the European context when considering the consumption models and living conditions that changed drastically after the fall of communism. Urban peripheries and metropolitan areas are the most dynamic surfaces in view of landscape function transformations. Therefore Romania has to handle several planning issues due to cities' expansion. The main issue addressed in this study is how landscapes in the periphery of urban settlements changed and affected the quality of life. We used a structured method of assessing the link between life quality and landscape change based on questionnaires with experts and social actors. The variation of residential suburban growth and impact on landscape functionality was illustrated using three types of Romanian cities that differ in size, function and landscape amenities. Our preliminary results indicate that suburban growth is sensitive to the conditions of urban life. GIS modeling and perception analysis show that landscape patterns and loss of natural or semi-natural areas can be linked to societal attitudes toward urban quality of life.
Urban Sprawl: Methods, Drivers, Limits and Implications for Planning
Organizer: Felix Kienast, Jochen Jaeger
Landscapes historical persistence and stakeholders' perspective over traditional land-uses. The case of Romania's Carpathians
Authors: Ileana Patru-Stupariu, Constantina A. Hossu*, Alexandre Buttler, Alexander Peringer
Cultural landscapes, created by traditional land use, are being threatened across Europe. Identifying landscapes persistence could reveal both important traditional cultural landscapes as well as landscapes that were affected by certain transformations. We used a GIS-based comparative analysis to identify the persistence of different land-cover types as well as qualitative interviews with stakeholders from three different cultural areas to examine their views regarding past and recent landscape changes. The study site is situated in the Romania's Southern Carpathians. Three land cover types (built-up, pastures and forests) were extracted using the maps produced in 1912, 1980 and 2009. The historical persistence for selected land-cover types is low and varies from 14% for pastures to 16% for forests. Unchanged forests were located close to a national park, while persistent pastures were situated close to human settlements. The persistence of the built-up area is very small and consists of scattered patches that have emerged around historical monuments. The results of the stakeholders' interviews reveal important past and recent landscape changes under socioeconomic and political circumstances. The nature and extent of these changes have imprinted stakeholders' concerns over the futures of their landscapes. New planning strategies and more public participation in the local decision making processes are necessary in the region to conserve the remained unique cultural landscapes.
Mountain Land Use Changes and Ecosystem Services
Organizer: Alina Tudor Hossu, Prakash C. Tiwari
Applied conservation planning within a Romanian Natura 2000 wetland - lessons from a LIFE Nature project
Authors: Laurentiu Rozylowicz, Andreea Nita*, Carmen Sorescu, Gabriel Chisamera, Cristiana Ciocanea, Steluta Manolache
Located in the south-western of Romania, Natura 2000 site "Danube water course Bazias-Iron Gates" overlaps a large area of core habitats for pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus ) and ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca). The main threats for pygmy cormorant are the lack of suitable habitats for breeding and feeding. Hence, with the support of an EU LIFE Nature project (LIFE10 NAT/RO/00740) we developed a conservation project aiming at improving connectivity of suitable feeding and breeding habitats for pygmy cormorant and ferruginous duck, in order to achieve a suitable conservation status for the two protected species. In order to select key intervention areas for species conservation, we use landscape connectivity metrics appropriate for our study, taking into account movement data for pygmy cormorant and ferruginous duck and relevant environmental variables. The main conservation activities implemented in selected key intervention areas were: enlarging pygmy cormorant breeding habitats by replacing invasive tree species (e.g., Ailanthus altissima, Amorpha fruticosa) with native white willow (Salix alba); enhancing feeding and breeding habitats for ferruginous duck by reducing biomass of water plant species; enhancing connectivity of pygmy cormorant feeding and resting sites by installing drying platforms and cormorant decoys. Our results demonstrates how simple spatial tools and landscape ecology indices can help biodiversity conservation practitioners to select key intervention areas and to implement viable and cost effective conservation programs.
Simulating landscape dynamics in pasture-woodlands of the Southern Carpathians following land use and climate change
Authors: Ioana Stoicescu, Alina Tudor Hossu*, Ileana Patru-Stupariu, Mihai S. Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Alexander Peringer
In Romania, where traditionally managed wood-pastures can still be found, a process of landscape transition has started, which drives land-use change towards either intensification or abandonment. Our research focuses on the South-Carpathian mountain ridge of Romania, where two selected study sites illustrate the above-mentioned situations of landscape segregation. The first study area, located in Fundata (Bran Passageway), pictures the loss of wood pastures to forest due to encroachment, whereas in the second selected location (Toplet, Caras-Severin County), the landscape undergoes segregation into treeless pasture and forest, due to intensification and cutting down the characteristic single trees. The spatially-explicit model WoodPaM, developed by F. Gillet, A. Peringer et al. (2008), has been adapted to the environmental conditions of the two selected Carpathian locations and used to simulate pasture-woodland landscape transitions. Implementing WoodPaM requires knowledge on herb layer dynamics, tree regeneration and impact of cattle activities, allowing for the simulation of silvo-pastoral landscape evolution. We conducted a cumulated analysis of land-cover change (at several temporal scales), geo-morphological constraints and fine-scale developments of vegetation structure, based on high-resolution LiDAR data. By relating long-term developments with short-term dynamics of vegetation succession, we are able to suggest causalities based on the relevant ecological processes.
Symposium Land Use and Ecosystem Services
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